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New method for preventing short circuit of lithium ion battery pack

Lithium-ion batteries have the risk of internal short-circuit due to many factors such as material system and manufacturing process. Although lithium-ion batteries have undergone strict aging and self-discharge screening at the factory, due to process failure and other unpredictable use factors, there is still a certain probability of failure leading to internal short circuits during use. For the power battery, the lithium-ion battery in the battery pack has several hundred or even tens of thousands of knots, which greatly enlarges the probability that the battery pack will be short inside. Due to the great energy contained in the power battery pack, the occurrence of internal short circuit is easy to induce a malignant accident, resulting in casualties and property losses. TE's PPTC and MHP-TA series products offer a possible solution to prevent the occurrence of a malignant accident in the event of an internal short circuit in the power battery.

For a parallel lithium-ion battery module, when one or several of the batteries are internally short-circuited, other batteries in the battery module will discharge them, and the energy of the battery pack will cause the internal short-circuit battery temperature to rise rapidly. It is easy to induce thermal runaway, which eventually causes the battery to explode.

As shown in Figure 1

Internal short circuit of a single battery

Figure 1: Internal short circuit of a single battery in the battery packs

Conventional temperature detection, when the battery is warming up, can inform the IC to cut off the main circuit, but can not prevent the continuous discharge inside the parallel battery module, and because the main circuit is cut off, all the energy of the battery module is concentrated on the internal short-circuit battery, but increase The probability of a thermal runaway occurring.

The ideal solution is to cut off the connection circuit between the battery and other batteries in the module when it is found that a certain battery has an internal short circuit and is warmed up. As shown in Figure 2, the TEPPTC or MHP-TA series products are assembled on a single battery. When an internal short circuit occurs, the TE protection device can effectively block the connection between the internal short-circuit battery and other batteries in the module to prevent the occurrence of a malignant accident. . For a power battery pack with a large number of single cells, the consistency of the internal resistance of the battery and the device is required when the group is assembled, and the MHP-TA has a very good consistency of the device resistance due to its internal bimetal structure, which can greatly satisfy the Battery internal resistance requirements.

Battery internal short circuit protection

Figure 2: Battery internal short circuit protection solution

The system composition and actual circuit of the lithium ion battery are complex, and the protection of the passive device is indispensable.

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